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European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations (DG NEAR)
News article9 March 2023Directorate-General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations6 min read

EU Solidarity with Ukraine: one year of temporary protection for people fleeing Russian aggression against Ukraine

Solidarity Ukr

The European Commission adopted today the Communication on Temporary Protection Directive. The Directive was triggered for the first time on 4 March 2022 in response to Russia's aggression against Ukraine, to protect people fleeing the war.

Since then around 4 million people were granted immediate protection in the EU, out of which more than 3 million in the first half of 2022. All those registered had the right to access the labour market, education, healthcare, and accommodation. The EU's response to the war in Ukraine shows once more what is possible when the EU acts united. The Temporary Protection Directive has proven to be an essential instrument to provide immediate protection in the EU and it should remain part of the toolbox available to the European Union in the future.

This Communication takes stock of the Directive's implementation over the last year, draws the lessons learned and identifies priority areas where continued efforts are needed.

The EU response a nutshell:

The Directive provided immediate protection while reducing formalities to the minimum. It complemented such protection with a comprehensive and harmonised set of rights:

  • Access to registration and documentation: Member States swiftly set up the procedures for registration and issuance of necessary documentation.
  • Special protection for children: currently close to one fifth of Ukraine's children are taking refuge in the EU.
  • Access to education and vocational training: as of the beginning of the school year last September, some half a million Ukrainian children were enrolled in education systems across the EU.
  • Addressing risks of trafficking in human beings and supporting victims of war crimes: the EU put in place the Common Anti-trafficking Plan to raise awareness among the displaced people and prevent human trafficking.
  • Access to healthcare and social benefits: almost 2 000 Ukrainian patients have been evacuated successfully to 20 EU and EEA countries, mental health and psychosocial support offered in the majority of Member States to those who fled the war.
  • Access to jobs: around one million displaced people are in employment across Europe and the EU has set up a Talent Pool Pilot to support labour market integration.
  • Access to accommodation and housing: the ‘Safe Homes' guidance assists Member States, regional and local authorities, and civil society in the organisation of private housing initiatives. The Commission awarded EUR 5.5 million to the project run by the International Federation of Red Cross supporting the implementation of the Safe Homes and launched a call for proposals for project grants to further promote community sponsorship schemes.

The Solidarity Platform ‘Ukraine' set up by the Commission immediately after the activation of the Directive has played a crucial role in ensuring a coordinated response.

The Commission and its Agencies have provided operational support to the Member States in implementing the Directive. The EU Agency for Asylum is supporting 13 Member States with their asylum, reception and temporary protection needs. Around 200 Frontex staff are deployed to the front-line Member States and Moldova to support their border management. Europol has also deployed staff and guest officers to conduct secondary security checks to five Member States and Moldova. Three EU Civil Protection Mechanism hubs were established in Member States to channel more than 80 000 tons of in-kind assistance to Ukraine.

The EU has also provided a financial support to address the needs of displaced persons. The EU has provided a total of €13.6 billion in additional funding through its CARE and FAST-CARE packages. €1 billion were reprogrammed under the cohesion funds and €400 million were made available under Home Affairs funds.

The EU has also stepped up its cooperation with international partners such as the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, as well as with relevant international organisations.

Next Steps

The European Union is ready to support Ukraine for as long as it takes. Protection has already been extended until March 2024 and can be further extended until 2025. The Commission is ready to take the necessary steps for further prolongation if needed. At the same time a strong EU coordinated approach will be pursued to ensure asmooth transition to alternative legal statuses that would allow access to rights beyond the maximum duration of temporary protection, and targeted support for persons who, having fled Ukraine, want to go back home.

Based on this year of implementation, the Commission considers that the Temporary Protection Directive should remain part of the toolbox of measures available at EU level. The Commission will work with the co-legislators to make sure the European Union is equipped with the tools it needs in the future and ensure proper articulation with the Commission's proposal for a Crisis and force majeure Regulation. 


On 4 March 2022, just one week after Russian forces invaded Ukraine, the Temporary Protection Directive was activated thanks to the unanimous decision by Member States on a proposal of the Commission. The Solidarity Platform ‘Ukraine', established by the Commission at the beginning of the war, brings together EU institutions, Member States, Schengen Associated Countries, EU Agencies, international organisations, Ukrainian and Moldovan authorities. It offers an informal and flexible forum for discussion on operational matters to coordinate support on the ground. The exchange of information and collection of accurate data through the EU Migration Preparedness and Crisis Blueprint Network, work of European Asylum Agencies contributed to swift set up of the Temporary Protection Registration Platform.

For More Information

Factsheet: Temporary Protection Directive Factsheet

Factsheet: EU support to help Member States meet the needs of refugees

1 year of Ukrainian resistance

EU Solidarity with Ukraine

The 10-Point Plan For stronger European coordination on welcoming people fleeing the war from Ukraine

Welcoming people fleeing the war in Ukraine

Communication on Temporary protection for those fleeing Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine: one year on




A generation of Ukrainian children has experienced a year of violence, fear, loss and tragedy. In a split second they had to leave their lives as they knew it behind them. Their present and their future has been changed irrevocably. We have already achieved a lot when it comes to the registration, protection and scholarisation of the many children that sought refuge inside the European Union. We will ensure to address remaining challenges and help our Member States to welcome children from Ukraine with their best interest in mind, including children evacuated from Ukrainian institutions.

Dubravka Šuica, Vice-President for Democracy and Demography - 08/03/2023


Since day one of the full-scale Russian invasion, the EU stood firmly on the side of Ukrainian people. European solidarity has been epitomised by the granting of immediate protection status to over four million people, with families in the EU opening their homes, schools welcoming new students, hospitals and medical services assisting those in need and over a million people displaced from Ukraine joining our workforce. Temporary protection has already been extended and we are ready to prolong this further. We will support Ukraine for as long as it takes. It is also clear that this valuable instrument should remain in the EU’s toolbox in the future.

Margaritis Schinas, Vice-President for Promoting our European Way of Life - 08/03/2023


One year on, temporary protection is a testament to the Union’s unity and solidarity with people fleeing the Russian aggression against Ukraine. The EU responded rapidly and provided a safe haven for those in need. This has been a joint endeavour by Member States, including social partners, non-governmental organisations, public authorities and international organisations. I would like to stress the impressive level of solidarity and remarkable welcome by so many Europeans who opened their homes and hearts to people fleeing the war.

Ylva Johansson, Commissioner for Home Affairs - 08/03/2023