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European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations

Türkiye

Türkiye

Membership status

Candidate country

Background

Türkiye is a key strategic partner of the EU on issues such as climate, migration, security, counter-terrorism and the economy.

In 1987, Türkiye applied to join what was then the European Economic Community, and in 1999 it was declared eligible to join the EU.

Türkiye's involvement with European integration dates back to 1959 and includes the Ankara Association Agreement (1963) for the progressive establishment of a Customs Union (ultimately set up in 1995).

Accession negotiations started in 2005, but until Türkiye agrees to apply the Additional Protocol of the Ankara Association Agreement to Cyprus, eight negotiation chapters will not be opened and no chapter will be provisionally closed.

In 2018, due to continuing backsliding in reforms in the key areas of the enlargement strategy, in particular in the functioning of the democratic system, respect for fundamental rights and independence of the judiciary, the Council decided that accession negotiations were at a standstill.

A visa liberalisation dialogue was launched in 2013. For the fulfilment of the requirements of its visa liberalisation roadmap several outstanding benchmarks remain. Türkiye’s economy is facing several challenges, such as high unemployment, depreciation of its currency and record-high inflation. Strong economic volatility has undermined the business environment and overreliance on external financing has created vulnerabilities.

Türkiye has seen an unprecedented influx of people seeking refuge from Syria which has exceeded 3.6 million to date (out of a total of 4 million of refugees in the country). Furthermore, the increasing political instability across its eastern border has brought around 330 000 asylum-seekers and refugees from other countries including Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran and Somalia to Türkiye. Overall, Türkiye is hosting one of the largest refugee populations worldwide and has already spent significant financial resources on addressing this crisis. The EU and Türkiye confirmed their shared commitment to end irregular migration from Türkiye to the EU, to break the business model of smugglers and offer migrants an alternative to putting their lives at risk in their joint statement of 18 March 2016.

The establishment of the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey was the answer to the EU Member States’ call for significant funding to support refugees in the country, and coordinates the mobilisation of EUR 6 billion, in two tranches. The Facility’s priority areas are education, health, protection, basic needs, socio-economic support and municipal infrastructure. The full operational budget of the Facility was committed in November 2019.

In 2020, continuity of support was ensured through additional humanitarian funding amounting to €535 million, which extended two flagship programmes launched under the Facility.

Further to the European Council conclusions of June 2021 the EU allocated €3 billion to refugees in Türkiye for 2021-2023. This additional funding should ensure the continuation of key Facility interventions in the priority areas of health, education, basic needs and livelihoods, as well as migration management.

Türkiye is eligible for EU financial support through the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA III 2021-2027) and also from the European Fund for Sustainable Development Plus (EFSD+). To support public and private investments in the priority areas of the EFSD+ (Green Deal, Global Gateways and Decent Jobs), the Turkey Investment Platform was established in 2022.

The EU Facility for Refugees in Türkiye

Negotiation chapters

OpenProvisionally closed

Free Movement of Capital
Company Law
Intellectual Property Law
Information Society and Media
Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy
Taxation
Statistics
Enterprise & Industrial Policy
Trans-European Networks
Environment
Consumer & Health Protection
Financial Control
Regional policy & coordination of structural instruments
Economic and Monetary Policy
Financial and budgetary provisions

Science and Research

The EU Delegation in Ankara provides more information on Türkiye.

Factsheets and Factographs available to download:

Timeline

  1. May 2022
    The EU-Turkey political directors meeting takes place in Ankara.
  2. May 2022
    The EU-Turkey high- level dialogue on agriculture takes place in Ankara.
  3. April 2022
    The second EU-Turkey high- level dialogue on climate takes place in Ankara, following the first meeting of the dialogue in September 2021 in Brussels.
  4. March 2022
    The 80th EU-Turkey Joint Parliamentary Committee takes place in Brussels.
  5. November 2021
    The EU-Turkey high-level dialogue on health takes place.
  6. October 2021
    The EU–Turkey high-level dialogue on migration and security takes place in Ankara.
  7. April 2021
    The Presidents of the European Council and of the European Commission meet the President of Türkiye in Ankara.
  8. March 2021
    The European Council expresses the EU's readiness to engage with Türkiye in a phased,

    proportionate and reversible manner to enhance cooperation in a number of areas of common interest.

  9. March 2020
    EU-Turkey Leaders' meeting takes place in Brussels.
  10. November 2019
    The EU adopts a framework for targeted measures against Türkiye for its illegal drilling activities in the Eastern Mediterranean.
  11. March 2019
    54th EU-Turkey Association Council held.
  12. 28-09-2016
    Third Implementation Report.
  13. 30-06-2016
    Accession conference with Türkiye: Talks opened on Chapter 33 - Financial and budgetary provisions.
  14. 15-06-2016
    Second Implementation Report.
  15. 04-05-2016
    Third Report on visa roadmap.
  16. 20-04-2016
    First Implementation Report of Statement.
  17. 18-03-2016
    EU-Turkey Statement.
  18. 14-12-2015
    Negotiations are opened on chapter 17 - Economic and monetary policy.
  19. 29-11-2015
    First EU-Turkey Summit held and Joint EU-Turkey Action Plan activated.
  20. 20-10-2014
    First implementation report on the visa roadmap.
  21. 16-12-2013
    Visa liberalisation dialogue launched and EU-Turkey Readmission Agreement signed.
  22. 05-11-2013
    Negotiations are opened on chapter 22 – Reg. Policy and Coordination of Structural Instruments.
  23. 17-05-2012
    Positive Agenda intended to bring fresh dynamics into the EU-Türkiye relations was launched.
  24. 30-06-2010
    Negotiations are opened on Chapter 12 (food safety, veterinary and phytosanitary policy).
  25. 19-02-2008
    Council adopts revised Accession Partnership for Türkiye.
  26. 11-12-2006
    Because Türkiye refused to apply to Cyprus the Additional Protocol to the Ankara Agreement, Council decides that eight chapters will not be opened.
  27. 01-06-2006
    Negotiations are opened and closed on Chapter 25 (science and research).
  28. 03-10-2005
    Council adopts negotiating framework, and negotiations are formally opened.
  29. 03-10-2005
    "Screening process" begins to determine to what degree Türkiye meets the membership criteria and what remains to be done.
  30. 16-12-2004
    European Council declares that Türkiye sufficiently fulfils the criteria for opening accession negotiations in October 2005.
  31. 19-05-2003
    Council adopts revised Accession Partnership for Türkiye.
  32. 24-03-2001
    Council adopts Accession Partnership for Türkiye.
  33. 11-12-1999
    Helsinki European Council declares Türkiye a Candidate Country.
  34. 13-12-1997
    Luxembourg Council summit declares Türkiye eligible to become EU member.
  35. 31-12-1995
    Türkiye-EU Association Council finalises agreement creating a customs union.

Key documents

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations

Türkiye Report 2022

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations

Türkiye Report 2021